A Time of Turmoil and a Time of Opportunity

As this month’s blog is being written, the US has a “shelter-in-place” directive that has been extended through the end of April.  There are many reports of possible medical treatments that may mitigate the current Covid-19 virus.  Most of the results are anecdotal and have not been vigorously tested.  The scientific/medical process is long and involved requiring multiple trials to prove something works.  I mention this because, the information that I write about are usually one of a kind reports.  That is why references are provided for the reader to investigate further.

While not strictly “nano”, phytomining is a very interesting concept that works with small metal particles.  Phytomining is the process of employing “hyper-accumulating” plants to extract metals from the ground. [Ref. 1]  There are a number of plants, with over 700 known, that have roots that extract metal from the ground.  There is a story that people, who understand the specific plants that grow locally, can determine areas that have gold in the soil.  The referenced article describes an experiment on a plot of land in a rural village on the island of Borneo.  Every six month, the farmer cuts off about a foot on new growth.  The plant cutting can be either squeezed to release the metal or burned to obtain the metal.  After purification the resultant material is nickel citrate.  This leads to the term phytomining or agromining.  Is this a possible means of obtaining metals that are in short supply bur needed for modern society?

Nanoparticles may be successful in targeting the most dangerous of prostate tumors. [Ref. 2] Some observations have suggested that tumors with high nerve densities might grow significantly faster and spread more rapidly than tumors with low nerve densities.  Current research has challenges in identifying the different densities.  The ability to identify nerve density would provide the ability to locate the more aggressive tumors.  That is currently difficult with existing MRI techniques since tumors with dense networks can closely resemble the tumors with an undeveloped nervous system.  Researchers in China have employed combining iron oxide with a nerve binding peptide NP41.  24 hours after injection of the contrast agent material with the iron oxide particles, the high density tumors are identifiable with an MRI scan.  This work has not been advanced to the stage where it can be tested on humans.  It seems to be promising for more than prostate tumors.

I do not normally cover specific products, however, when something seems intriguing, I will provide some thoughts.  These are initial thoughts and not any recommendations for or against a product.  There is a product in the early stages of marketing that employs 60nm particles that act a capacitors (nanocapacitors).  [Ref. 3]  The explanation is that this concept was developed as part of a leading-edge antenna investigation.  Built as an appliable, bandage type device, it contains a substrate, a layer of nanocapacitors, and a carrier layer.  The carrier layer contacts the skin where there is pain.  The contention is that the nanocapacitors interfere (?) or mitigate the electrical signals the body is transmitting from the area of pain.  Does it work?  I have not tired it, so I can not issue a judgment.  The concept seems plausible.  Are there potential issues?  There could be.  It depends on what the nanomaterials are.  At the 60nm size, the properties should be very similar to the bulk material properties.  The size of the particles probably has a specific relationship to the frequency of the signal being mitigated.  The only issue that might be possible is that if the wearer employed the device to mitigate pain and performed an action that increased the severity of the source of pain.  Time will tell on this.   

These are interesting times we live in.

References:

  1. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/26/science/metal-plants-farm.html?utm_source=pocket-newtab
  2. https://physicsworld.com/a/nanoparticles-target-the-most-dangerous-prostate-tumours/?
  3. https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/kailo-the-future-of-pain-relief#/  Scroll down to the section that starts “your body is an electrical system” for more detail on the concept.

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Progress and Concerns

Additional information related to last month’s blog.  Single layer technology advances from the DoE’s Argonne National Laboratory have moved the Molecular Layer Etching to the atomic level. [Ref. 1] Argonne Labs have been employing Atomic Layer Etching (ALE).  Just as ALD can be employed to create single layers on a substrate, ALE can be employed to remove atomic layers.  Their work also established a relationship between the reaction temperature and the rate of material removal.  (There is a post by Karsten Arts of Eindhoven University of Technology [Ref. 2] that provides significant detail on plasma assisted ALD and thin film uniformity.)  The claim by researchers at Argonne is that this work may provide a means of creating and controlling nanomaterial geometries with the possibility of creating a means of extending Moore’s Law.  As has been stated in a number of blogs, the development of new tools or creating means to extend the usage of existing tools will provide the means of creating new materials that have properties unknown to us at this time. 

Moving to at different subject, the need for scientific integrity and reproducible results is critical for the advancement of science.  It is also true in other fields.  In a report from the University of Texas at Austin, McCombs School of Business [Ref.3], the topic of using standard algorithms to develop corporate business reports is compared to the traditional approach employed by businesses.  One key observation was that depending on the manner in which the company employed the data (or only a portion of the data), the results of the businesses could change.  Interestingly, the independent observer preferred the reports generated by the management over the algorithm approach.  The report states that the observers preferred the business developed report due to the “positive” spin on explaining the numbers. 

This brings us back to scientific research where the results are promising but there is insufficient information about the original hypothesis, or the experiment procedure developed to prove/disprove the hypothesis.  A few years ago, I covered the study that found of just over 100 published reports of scientific discovery, over 80% of the results were not able to be duplicated – even by the original researcher.  Granted, that many cases, the research area is so new, that expertise of independent researchers for the review may not fully comprehend what is being done without the ability to observe the experiment.  This becomes more of an issue as the nanoscale development moves to smaller and smaller dimensions.  The equipment is normally expensive and scarce.  Time to use the equipment is strictly allocated.  Consequently, the researcher must provide details of the testing and detailed results that are comprehensive.  Removing some results need to be explained whether due to instrumentation irregularities or equipment malfunction or bad sample preparation.  Without details the integrity of the results must be suspect.  A single instance is insufficient.  If one looks at the range of probabilities for an occurrence of a sample size of one, and there is an “n-1” in the denominator, the answer is meaningless.

As the development of materials starts to incorporate more and more single atomic layer materials, the critical nature of reproducible results is necessary.  Scientific integrity has to exist.

References:

  1. https://www.anl.gov/article/new-argonne-etching-technique-could-advance-the-way-semiconductor-devices-are-made
  2. https://www.atomiclimits.com/2020/02/08/basic-insights-into-ald-conformality-a-closer-look-at-ald-and-thin-film-conformality/
  3. https://medium.com/texas-mccombs/to-remove-corporate-bias-let-algorithms-summarize-earnings-47a8055b8d53

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Is that all there is?

With apologies for using the title of a Peggy Lee song from the 70s, this reference is to nanotechnology.  There are continually more interesting findings as researchers move into smaller and smaller particle sizes.  The question really is what happens when the ability to work at sizes as single digit nanometer particles and smaller becomes practical.  To some extent, research is already at this point.  What new properties will become known?

There has been concern that the absorption of heave metals can have a detrimental effect on the human body by becoming a cumulative toxic.  Gold nanoparticles have been employed in various cancer cure Efforts since the early 2000s.  A recent report [Ref. 1] indicates that gold, chemically inert, does not remain intact within cellular structures.  In work done by researchers at the University of Paris, Sorbonne University, and the University of Strasbourg has revealed that gold nanoparticles ranging from 4nm to 22nm indicates these particles do not remain unchanged.    They observed a transformation of the nanoparticles into leaf shaped structures.  These finding may provide additional avenues of investigation for determining the means which the human body metabolizes the particles.  This could change the overall evaluation of potential toxicity.

As mentioned in last month’s blog, researchers have been able to strengthen the structure of silver without diminishing it conductive properties by “implanting” copper atoms at defect along the grain boundaries of the silver.  The maximum strengthening appears to occur when the grain boundaries are 7nm apart. [Ref. 2]

There has been a number of articles on two-dimensional materials, like graphene.  An article in Nature Electronics [Ref. 3] describes the development of heterostructures form by stacking layers of different two-dimensional materials that are possible due to Van der Waals forces.  This particular application create memristors with good thermal stability. 

This bring the discussion to the progress in Atomically Precise Manufacturing (APM).  From Wikipedia, “APM is the production of materials, structures, devices, and finished goods in a manner such that every atom has a specific location relative to the other atoms …” [Ref. 4]  In 2017, the American Chemical Society has a report [Ref. 5] that indicates over 100 molecules of noble metals have been created and are able to de manufactured.  The molecules demonstrate different properties that are different from the nanomaterials.  The research effort has grown to the point where there is a conference on Atomically Precise Nanochemistry. [Ref. 6]

So, Nanotechnology is not the bottom.  There is also work being on electron spin in the quantum realm.  The one consideration that needs to move forward as the APM and other atomic level research progresses in the issue of “safety”.   The development of a “white” paper on the challenges for the manufacture, storage, and handling of these even smaller particles has been initiated with the anticipated release of the recommendation late in 2020.  This effort will be a complementary effort to the existing Nano-Safety “white” paper from 2007. [Ref. 7]

References:

  1. https://physicsworld.com/a/gold-nanoparticles-inside-cells-are-not-inert-say-researchers/?utm_medium=email&utm_source=iop&utm_term=&utm_campaign=14290-45008&utm_content=Title%3A%20Gold%20nanoparticles%20inside%20cells%20are%20not%20inert%2C%20say%20researchers%20%20-%20Editors_pick&Campaign+Owner=
  2. https://www.uvm.edu/uvmnews/news/inventing-worlds-strongest-silver 
  3. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41928-018-0021-4
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomically_precise_manufacturing
  5. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00769
  6. https://www.grc.org/atomically-precise-nanochemistry-conference/2020/
  7. http://www.tryb.org/a_white_paper_on_nano-safety.pdf

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Another Year of Progress (?)

As always when reflecting over a year that is ending, there is good news and there is bad news.  We’ll start with the good.  A lot of technology is being created.  As mentioned last month, new material properties are being created.  The one that I find the most fascinating is the creation of transparent wood!  This material was developed at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. [Ref. 1] The wood is capable of both storing heat and being transparent, although the transparency becomes translucent as the heat is released.  The figure shows the fully transparent wood on the left and the translucent heat release wood on the right. 

In order to manufacture the wood, the researchers took balsa wood and removed its lignin (provides strength and color) and added acrylic into the remaining tissues filling the empty space remaining from the removal of the lignin and hollow spaces that carry water within the tree.  This produced the structure that restored the strength lost by the removal of the lignin and provided the optical properties.

Another report [Ref 2] describes increasing the strength of silver conductor by introducing very sight amounts of copper.   Their 42% increase in strength is due to their discovery of a new mechanism that works at the nanoscale.  They started with the premise that all metals have defects, which leads to undesirable qualities.  To compensate for these changes, many have solved that issue by creating alloys to make materials stronger, which tends to reduce electrical conductivity.   The team, including researchers from the University of Vermont, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Ames lab, Los Alamos Nations Lab, and UCLA, began with the fact that as a material size is reduced to the size of a crystal, the material gets stronger. (Hall-Petch relation).  This relation no longer holds when the material is in the 10s of nanometers.  The boundaries between grains becomes unstable and can move.  (Significantly more detail is in the referenced article.)  Introduction of copper atoms, which are slightly smaller than silver atoms, allows the copper atoms to move into defect areas in the grain boundaries.  The team reported the maximum strength is achieved with boundaries that are 7 nanometers apart. 

The future of semiconductors is continuing down the path of continual size reduction.  The next release of the Roadmap will provide the requirements for individual structures that will be measured in tenths of nanometers.  While that is still years away, the fact that such structures are being contemplated implies the development of equipment that will be able to increase our ability to evaluate phenomena in the single digit nanometer and and below.

There appears to great things happening, so what is the bad news.  Unfortunately, the bad news is that the true application of the scientific method is being compromised occasionally.  I am not going to pick one specific study.  There have been retractions from researchers when others in the field have pointed out that their investigations have produced data that was removed in the final determination of the findings.  This is nothing new, but the increase in retractions has been growing since the mid 1990s. [Ref. 3] While the referenced article points out that retractions are not all bad, the increase in fabricated results or falsification has risen along with the rise in retractions.  We must have trust in research that is reported.

References:

  1. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/apr/03/scientists-invent-transparent-wood-in-search-for-eco-friendly-building-material
  2. https://www.uvm.edu/uvmnews/news/inventing-worlds-strongest-silver  
  3. https://alumni.berkeley.edu/california-magazine/just-in/2016-03-16/retraction-action-science-fraud-more-retractions-could-be

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Mitigating Radioactive Waste with Nanomaterials

As the tools available become more precise and develop new capabilities, discoveries arise that are surprising.  Sometimes, this occurs by accident as happened by scientists in Germany, Russia, and Sweden.  The report [Ref. #1] indicate the scientists found a chemically stable compound containing plutonium.  Specifically, the team led by Kristina Kvashnina at the Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf found that a compound containing plutonium in its fifth oxidations state can remain stable for “long” periods of time.  The team created nanoparticles of plutonium-oxide atoms in different oxidation states. 

 “One of the most fundamental properties of the chemical behavior of plutonium is the variety of its oxidation states.  The oxidation state is defined by the number of electrons that are removed from the valence orbitals of a neutral atom.  In the pentavalent oxidation state, plutonium has three electr4ons in the 5f shell, leaving the 6d orbitals empty. The oxidation state of plutonium determines its chemical behavior and its reactivity.” [Ref. 2]

The team observed the resultant particle structure using X-ray equipment at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France.  They found that the theory agreed with the rapid formation of the plutonium-oxide nanoparticles in its third, fourth, and fifth states.  The sixth oxidation state proved to be different and appeared to have a two-step process that took some time to complete.

The conclusion was that the time lengthening could be due to a stable form of the fifth state.  This had not been observed experimentally before.  Theoretically, if this is correct, it would be possible for the particles could remain stable over months, which would be a major change in our understanding of the chemical properties of nuclear material, particularly nuclear waste.  The team did additional experimentation using high-energy resolution fluorescence and confirmed that a stable form of the fifth oxidation state has actually be observed.  They further confirmed the compound’s stability by drying it our of liquid suspension and measuring the absorption spectrum over time. 

 So, what is the significance of a stable state of plutonium-oxide? 

One of the most significant issues facing the nuclear power industry is the disposal of “spent” radioactive material for reactors.  Plutonium plays a prominent role in nuclear energy production as well as nuclear weapons.  The development of storage methods for nuclear waste is challenging to say the least.  With various materials capable of remaining radioactive for tens of thousands of years, the design of containment that will safeguard the material is difficult.  There are ongoing studies on ways to mitigate the long-term effects of the radioactive material.  This research may provide researchers a methodology to create nanomaterials that mitigate the effects of the radioactive materials by converting them into stable compounds.  This work provides a new method of evaluating was to handle long-term storage of radioactive waste.

References:

  1. https://physicsworld.com/a/surprisingly-stable-plutonium-compound-could-affect-nuclear-waste-storage/
2.      “A Novel Metastable Pentavalent Plutonium Solid Phase on the Pathway from Aqueous Plutonium(VI) to PuO2 Nanoparticles ” https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201911637

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New nanomaterials and implications

With all the publications touting new materials or the creation of new properties of materials, it is often difficult to identify disparate findings into something that could combine into very useful devices.  We will consider two findings.

 A team of scientists from the University of Vermont. Lawrence Livermore National Labs and other Labs developed a form of silver with enhanced strength.  [Ref. 1] They found a new nanoscale mechanism that enable improving metal strength without reducing electrical conductivity.  Currently, in order to improve strength related properties like reducing brittleness or softening, various alloys are employed to make the materials stronger.  This improvement has led to a decrease in electrical conductivity.

Starting with the fact that as grains of material get smaller, they get stronger.  When the size becomes less than tens of nanometers wide, the boundaries between grains become unstable and can move.  One approach to improving the strength in metals like silver is to create a special type of grain boundaries known as coherent twin boundaries.  These boundaries are very strong but deteriorates when the size is less than a few nanometers due to imperfections in the lattice. 

The researchers have developed an approach to create a “nanocrystalline-nanotwinned metal.  Employing a small amount of copper atoms, which are slighter smaller than silver atoms, to move into defects in both grain and twin boundaries.  This has created a super strong form on sliver with the conductivity of silver retained.  It appears that the copper atoms move into the interface and not into the main part of the silver structure. 

This effort overcomes softening previous observed as the grains get to small, which is called the Hall-Petch breakdown.  The researchers a confident that their findings can be applied to other materials.

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Researchers at the University of Porto (Portugal) found a negative thermal expansion (NTE) effect in Gd5Si1.3Ge2.7 magnetic nano granules. [Ref. 2] Most material expand (Positive Thermal Expansion – PTE) when heated and contract when cooled.  This material is part of a family of materials that has important implications in the development of future devices.

Work in materials like glass has been developing glass that has Low Expansion Coefficients for more than 50 years.  This type of precision in glass is required to manufacture the very high-resolution optical telescopes. 

The ability to create materials that combine both positive expansion and negative expansion to electronics would enable the development of more robust material inter-connections (contacts) that can withstand the rigors of wide temperature extremes. 

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Why are these findings important?  Currently, efforts are being made to create longer lasting electronics.  Material fatigue and power consumption are two major concerns.  What electronics are available that will be functioning 100 years from today?  Excluding the obsolescence factor, there is nothing that will be working as designed.  The current exploration conversations are about considering project to both the Moon and Mars.  There are space probes that have been functioning for tens of years.  Other probes stop functioning “mysteriously”.  Multiple redundancy provides a partial work-around.  But, how much redundancy is allowable when the “mission” is weight limited.  There are no manufacturing facilities on places that are being considered for human exploration.  The ability to manufacture devices are better able to withstand temperature extremes, use power more efficiently, and remain operations for longer periods of time are needed.  The research mentioned above is not the answer, but may be the first steps to a solution.

References:

  1. https://www.uvm.edu/uvmnews/news/inventing-worlds-strongest-silver
  2. https://physicsworld.com/a/giant-negative-thermal-expansion-seen-in-nanomagnet/?utm_medium=email&utm_source=iop&utm_term=&utm_campaign=14290-44232&utm_content=Title%3A%20Giant%20negative%20thermal%20expansion%20seen%20in%20nanomagnet%20-%20Editors_pick

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Nanotechnology is getting interesting

In our June 30 blog, we covered Part 2 of an upcoming technology disruption.  This blog is covering material from the IEEE Spectrum magazine [Ref. 1] on a Carbon Nanotube microprocessor.  A more detailed article is available from Nature [Ref. 2].  CNT transistors have been around for more than 10 years.  There have even been some processors assembled into extremely simple “computers”.  This device contains nearly 15,000 transistors.  It has the ability to say “Hello”, which is the traditional test of a functioning computer.  Current microprocessors contain billions of transistors, so there is still a long way to go, but it is a start. 

Key facts of the development created by a team from MIT and Analog Devices include it is a fully programmable 16-bit carbon nanotube microprocessor.  It is based on the RISC-V instruction set and can work with both 16-bit and 32-bit instructions.  In order to accomplish this, there were three problems that needed to be overcome. 

In our opinion, the most challenging was the fact that there is no process that will create only semiconducting CNTs.  There is always a mix of metallic with the semiconducting CNTs.  There are indications that today’s best processes for semiconducting CNTs can produce four 9s semiconducting purity but not the eight or nine 9s required for a robust manufacturing process.  The issue with the impurity is an increase in signal noise. 

As with many breakthroughs, the solution is different from developing additional ways of increasing the semiconducting CNT purity.  The researchers worked with various circuit designs to analyze the capabilities of the designs.  What was found is that there is a pattern of results that suggested certain combinations of logic gates were better in significantly reducing the noise.  The power waste issue turned out to be minor compared to the noise issue.  With this information, they developed a set of design rules that permits large scale integration of CNTs with readily available purity.

The issue how to create the circuitry was the first one solved to get to the important development above.  Typically, CNT transistors are created by spreading a solution with CNTs uniformly across the surface of a wafer.  The issue they had is that there are aggregates or clumps of CNTs bundled on the surface.  Obviously, this is unacceptable due to the clumps being unable to form transistors.  The solution was to use the fact that single CNTs are held to the surface by van de Waals forces and bundles of CNTs are not; so, it is possible to remove the bundles. 

The third challenge is that for CMOS logic, both NMOS and PMOS transistors are required.   It is not practical to try to dope individual structures to provide the desired N or P characteristic.  The researchers employed a dielectric oxide to either add or subtract electrons.  Using atomic layer deposition (ALD), they were able to deposit an oxide with the desired properties one atomic layer at a time.  By selecting the proper materials, the researchers were able to reliably create PMOS and NMOS devices together.  This process is a low temperature process that permits building layers of transistors between levels of interconnects.

The interesting concept provided in developing the CNT microprocessor is that the processes employed are currently employed in semiconductor manufacturing.  The development of this type of concept into a full, high volume device does not require the development of a new industry with new tooling requirements.  It is possible that as the techniques evolve, current semiconductor manufacturing companies could evolve the processes and not have a major retooling effort.  This fact could encourage the hastening of acceptance of CNT transistors.  It will be interesting to observe the progress over the next few years.

References:

  1. https://spectrum.ieee.org/nanoclast/semiconductors/processors/modern-microprocessor-built-using-carbon-nanotubes?utm_source=circuitsandsensors&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=circuitsandsensors-09-03-19&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiTWpSa01HVTNZemN4TXpnNCIsInQiOiJhQTkxMkYyNTF5SVFyZzY0eXhHZmVUMlJhZ2hzeml2TE94KzVEdkR6cHIzMHFkUmhOZ0ZJYzBEMlRrUEZHaDNWRFhjcWdZRUlUUkdmeHc0Z3NNZmFoUEUycTFNWjFHSmhcL3NKNSt6VllYYVVCUDRLWm9qTURrcWtKSElxcVA3UmMifQ%3D%3D
  2. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1493-8

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Reliability

It might seem odd to discuss reliability in a blog that focuses on nanotechnology and its implementation.  However, if one considers that we are using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in many different products to increase strength and reduce weight along with the semiconductor circuitry that has nano-scale components, then it might not be too unusual to consider reliability.    

Over the last twenty years, there has been a lot of controversy about CNTs.  The shape of the CNTs is like a short, straight stick, albeit at the nano dimensions.  The appearance of the CNTs resembles five of the six types of asbestos particles.  Consequently, this similarity raised concern and a number of studies were undertaken.  Results came out on both sides of the issue.  Some results showed potential danger and other results indicated with precautions, the CNTs are safe.  (We have covered Nano-Safety a few times, so we will not add more here.)

Composite materials employing CNTs for strengthening work well and when the composite is damaged, the release of any of the CNTs appears to be minimal.  Overall, the application of the CNTs provides significant benefit for long term usage of items containing the CNT embedded composite.  The usage of CNTs in products has only been a few decades.  This is not long enough to evaluate the long term effects. 

Many attempts have been made to develop carbon-based materials for electronics.  Graphene has been covered in detail within this blog.  The application of both nanotube and various two-dimensional electronic materials appears to have had moderate success.  The question is how to mass produce items/devices in the billions as are being done with semiconductors.  This is a challenge.

Semiconductors are coming into the nano-scale regime even if it is not through new electronic circuit components.  The line width of circuit features is well below 50nm.  The experimental efforts today are at 5nm and below.  The circuit designers, material scientists, and semiconductor fabricators are aware of the potential current changes due to leakage of electrons through materials that are barriers to this movement at larger dimensions.  New materials are being developed and evaluated.  Circuitry mis-performance is always a concern. 

The challenges of electronic circuits are what happens when the device ages.  Historically, although semiconductors are relatively new, the consumer applications that employ the sophisticated electronics were limited to a narrow range of temperatures.  These devices are increasingly being employed in automotive, industrial, and medical applications. Consequently, reliability has become much more important. The aging of devices is becoming a more critical element of the design structure.

The car or truck that we own has become among the most electronically controlled device that we have. The temperature extremes that a vehicle can be subjected to, especially under the hood, can range from -40 F or lower to well above 150 F. An example given is that an automobile that is purchased and driven in Arizona, for example, is subject to significantly different conditions from an automobile that is used in Alaska. There is also a difference in the usage of the electronics. And automobile that is used for work or pleasure will have a limited number of trips during the course of the day or week. A vehicle like a taxi or delivery truck will be under constant usage and subjected to a lot more stress. [Ref. 1]  these become part of the new challenges for devices as he electronics becomes more integral into everyday life. The medical field also has similar issues regarding reliability of equipment that is used for performing medical exams or procedures. When a life-sustaining device is employed, the reliability of the operation of that device is critical.  Failure is not an option.

The point of this particular blog is to raise awareness of the fact that the reliability of electronics needs to increase. There is work that is being done that will improve the situation. But, what do we do to build a device which can last and perform its intended function for 100 years, or 1,000 years!

References:

  1. https://semiengineering.com/circuit-aging-becoming-a-critical-consideration/

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Nano-Safety

It’s been a while since nanotechnology safety was featured in this blog.  This blog has previously mentioned the lawsuit against Johnson & Johnson (J&J) regarding the talc in their talcum powder.  The contention was that there was asbestos in the talc employed by J&J which caused the women’s illness.   There is one source identified that definitely has asbestos material.  The first award in that case was made despite the J&J claimed that they had not used talc from that source and the fact that the woman could not remember if she ever used the J&J product.   Recently, Bayer AG lost a case with a $2B award to two claimants who developed cancer that was caused by Bayer’s glyphosate-based Roundup weed killer. (Ref. 1) This award was despite the fact that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has concluded that there are no risks to public health from the current registered uses of glyphosate.

So what does this have to do with Nano-Safety?  There are so many unknowns with nanomaterials, that the long-term effects are not fully comprehended.  As diagnostic science improves, there will be more potential issues found.  Add to the litigation increases and the vast unknowns, there are a number of reports where “scientific mischief” occurs.  (This phenomenon has been covered in previous blogs.)  The only practical method to attempt to mitigate negative consequences of working with nanomaterials is to implement a comprehensive program of nanotechnology safety.

Given the fact that the understanding of Nano-Safety requires a complete knowledge of material properties, particle behavior, toxicity, impact on the environment, proper handling and protection, etc., the ability to meet all these conditions does not exist.  Therefore, it becomes necessary to develop an approach to ensure that proper procedures are established and maintained, worker safety is provided and routinely checked, equipment is appropriate for the task and monitored, etc., which requires a planned approach.  The initial White Paper on Nano-Safety (Ref. 2) characterized four areas to be addresses: 1) Material Properties; 2) Impact on People and the Environment; 3) Handling of Nanomaterials; and 4) Business Focus.  A synopsis of the key thoughts in the White Paper is in the next few paragraphs.

Understanding Material Properties requires knowledge of what properties need to be investigated.  That is a challenge since the properties are unknown.  A recent report indicated that a twisted layer of graphene demonstrated some magnetic storage potential.   So where does one start?  The need is to begin with the obvious challenges, like size or shape, that are similar to know issues and the continually explore research  to obtain knowledge of new properties.

The key objective is evaluating the Impact on People and the Environment.  The is non-trivial and will not be accurately understood in the new future.  That is why the next section becomes critical.  The evaluation of workers before, during, and after leaving their nanotechnology efforts is accomplished to provide long term learning of potential effects. 

Proper Handling of Nanomaterials is the only means to work with materials with unknown properties.  Procedures need to be established and followed.  Monitoring of storage, usage, and disposal of nanomaterials needs to be treated as if everything unknown is potentially hazardous. 

The Business Focus is important.  The organization needs to protect its personnel.  Typically, this is done by instituting established guidelines.  While there are some guidelines, in general, the guidelines can not cover all unknowns.  This requires continual monitoring and record keeping. 

Even doing everything possible does not guarantee that everyone and everything will be safe.  It does provide a basis for protecting people and the environment.  With continual updates to procedures, this process will minimize potential risks.  An Attitude of Nano-Safety is required.

References:

  1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-bayer-glyphosate-lawsuit/california-jury-hits-bayer-with-2-billion-award-in-roundup-cancer-trial-idUSKCN1SJ29F
  2. http:// http://www.tryb.org/a_white_paper_on_nano-safety.pdf

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A coming disruption in technology? Part 2

The design of the semiconductor circuit components has been evolving as the feature size shrinks.  The semiconductor industry has been able to develop new designs as older techniques become restrictive due to various material properties.  This blog is a short review of the history of development of device structures with some thoughts on the coming changes.  There were many different types of transistors during the 1950s, 1960s, and into the 1970s.  These can be found in many places on-line, including Wikipedia [Ref. 1].

The field effect transistor (FET) has been a staple of semiconductor manufacturing for years.  The majority of the devices produced through the 2000s were complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS).  The picture below, from reference #2 shows the components of the FET.

The manufacture of FETs are directly ono the silicon wafers.  The gate electrode is the control for the flow of the charges, either electrons or holes.  The structure is structured with planar layers, which gives rise to the term “planar gate”.  As the size of the semiconductor components, the dimensions became smaller.  The shrinkage of the gate length increased the switching speed with the result faster electronics.  Problems began to arise as the gate length shrunk toward 20nm.  The current could flow without any control by the gate electrode. 

The issue of not having enough surface area to control the FET was addressed with the development of the FinFET.  The picture below is from reference #3.  The gate material is vertical and provides more volume for controlling the flow of the charge.  The “source” and “drain” are also vertical (fins) that provide a better control that operates at a lower voltage, which also provides better performance.  Unfortunately, the design is more complex and challenging to produce.  Semiconductor manufacturing has kept up with these challenges, but ….. 

F

With the current view of the future of production, FinFET are starting to reach their limit.  So, a different solution needs to be developed.  There are some thoughts about increasing the “fins” to cover more contact area.  This is shown below as the Gate-All-Around FET [Ref. 4].  Others are looking at different designs.  The Multi-bridge Channel FET was identified in the early 2000s, but manufacturing technology was not available. 

Coming soon?

The development of the GAAFET was led by IBM.  Samsung has move beyond the collaboration to the MBCFET, which it contends will be in production for the 3nm node. 

There are challenges to gate-all-around designs.  There is only modest improvement over FinFets at 5nm.  The manufacturing technology is challenging [Ref. 6] with tighter manufacturing requirements due to greater complexity.  The current version of the devices requires a silicon, silicon-germanium, and silicon super lattice stack.  More details of the process is available in reference 6.  The projection is for the introduction on the GaaFET at 3nm.  

Historically, each succeeding node brings with it move transistors per unit area with lower power and higher performance at a lower cost per transistor.   Due to the greater challenges in producing the smaller and smaller transistors, that fact is no longer true.  The question I s not whether or not the technology will continue to advance, but how will the technology transform to continue to provide more capable devices.

References:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor
  2. Chapter 2: Nanotechnology in Electronics, Larry Larson et al, Nanotechnology for Sustainable Manufacturing. Pp. 17-35. CRC Press. David Rickerby editor.  2016.  ISBN13: 978-1-4822-1483-3
  3. https://blog.lamresearch.com/tech-brief-finfet-fundamentals/
  4. https://www.pcgamesn.com/samsung/3nm-gaa-beat-tsmc
  5. https://wccftech.com/samsung-announces-3nm-mbcfet-process-5nm-production-in-2020/
  6. https://semiengineering.com/5nm-vs-3nm/

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